According to the Post-Standard, the Senate rejected a measure by Minority Leader Mitch McConnell of Kentucky and Sen. James Inhofe of Oklahoma, 50-50. The legislation needed 60 votes to pass.
The measure would have repealed a 2009 finding by federal scientists that climate change caused by greenhouse gasses endangers human health.
The measure also would have prevented the EPA from using existing law to regulate heat-trapping pollution.
Only four Democrats -- Sens. Mary Landrieu of Louisiana, Joe Manchin of West Virginia, Mark Pryor of Arkansas and Ben Nelson of Nebraska -- supported the McConnell bid.
One Republican, Sen. Susan Collins of Maine, voted against the measure.